Sources of Ancient Indian History:
Religious Nature Accounts:
1) Rigveda 2) Yajurveda 3) Samveda 4) Atharvanaveda
- Siksha (Pheonetics)
- Kalpa (Rituals)
- Vyakarna (Grammer)
- Nirukta (Etymology)
- Chhand (Metrics)
- Jyotisha (Asronomy)
Ashtadhyayi : (eight chapter) written by Panini
Brahmanas, The Aranyakas and Upanishadas ( These are later vedic literature)
Brahmanas explain the description of Vedic rituals
Aranyakas and Upanishads give speeches on different spiritual and philosophical issues
18 Puranas gives us mainly historical accounts
The Ramayana and the Mahabharata :- epics of great historical importance
The Jain and Buddhist literature : written in the Prakrit and pali languages respectively
Ashokan edicts had been written in Pali language
Jatakas: it is stories of Buddhist. There are more than 550 such stories.
Dharmasutras and Smritis: these were the rules and regulations for the general public and the rulers. Its related with Constitution and the law books in terms of modern concept. Dharmashasthra were compiled between 600 and 200 B.C.A
- Mudrarakshasha was a script written by Visakhadatta. It describes the society and culture of that period
- Malavikagnimitram written by Kalidasa gives information about the reign of Pushyamitra Sunga Dynasty
- Bhasa and Sudraka are poets who have written plays based on historical events.
- Harshacharita written by Banabhatta gives information about the king of Harsha and their Dynasty
- Vakpati wrote Gaudavaho based on the exploits of Yasovarman of Kanouj
- Vikramankadevacharita, written by Bilhana , gives information about Chalukya king Vikramaditya.
- Rajatarangini, written by Kalhana, is the best form of history writing valued by modern historians.
- The Sangam literature: literature is in the form of short and long poems consisting 30000 lines of poetry
- Herodotus mentioned Indo- Persian relations in his work
- A detailed account of the invasion of India by Alexander was written by Arrian
Megasthanes:- came to court of Chandragupta Mourya. He had written Indica book which was related to Indian society and culture.
A book Periplus of the Erythrean Sea written by an anonymous Greek author, gives valuable information about Indian coasts
In the second century C.A. Ptolemy had written a geographical treatise on India
Fa-Hien: He was visited India in 5th century C.A
Hiuen-Tsang (Xuanzang) : Visited India in 7th century during the period of Harshavardhana
Al-Biruni: gave important information about India. He was Arab Scholar and Contemporary of Mahmud of Ghazni
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